Monday, December 20, 2021

High Fidelity 14W - 12V Power Amplifier using TDA2030 IC + PCB

Fig. 1 - High Fidelity 14W - 12V Power Amplifier using TDA2030 IC


This is a 14W Hi-Fi power amplifier that uses the TDA2030 integrated circuit, and the good thing about this amplifier is that it also uses an asymmetric 12V power supply, and that we can simply use it in various projects with one power supply simple, and or with batteries.

The TDA2030 is a monolithic integrated circuit in a Pentawatt® package, intended to be used as a low frequency Class AB amplifier. 

Typically, it provides output power of 14W (d = 0.5%) at 14V / 4Ω; at ± 14V the guaranteed output power is 12W with a load of and 8W on an .

In Figure 2, we can see the pinout of the TDA2030, it provides a high current output and very low harmonic and cross distortion. 

Fig. 2 - Pinout TDA2030

In addition, the device incorporates a short-circuit protection system and an arrangement to automatically limit the dissipated energy so as to keep the working point of the output transistors within their safe operating area. A conventional thermal shutdown system is also included.

Features

  • Wide-range supply voltage, up to 36 V
  • Single power supply
  • Short-circuit protection to ground
  • Thermal shutdown
  • Low distortion

PROTECTION AGAINST SHORT CIRCUIT

The TDA2030 has a unique circuit that limits current from the output transistors. the maximum output current is a function of the emitter-collector voltage; hence the output transistors work within their safe operating area. 

This function can therefore be considered to be peak power limiting rather than simple current limiting. Reduces the possibility of the device being damaged during an accidental output short circuit.

THERMAL DISCONNECTION

The presence of a thermal limiting circuit offers the following advantages:

  1. An output overload (even if it is permanent), or an ambient temperature above the limit can be easily withstood as the Tj cannot exceed 150°C.

  2. The heat sink may have a lower safety factor compared to a conventional circuit. There is no possibility of damage to the device due to high junction temperature. If for some reason the junction temperature rises up to 150°C, thermal shutdown simply reduces power dissipation at current consumption.

The maximum allowable power dissipation depends on the size of the external heat sink (ie thermal resistance); this power is dissipated depending on the ambient temperature for different thermal resistance.

The schematic circuit is shown in Figure 3, it is a very simple circuit, which can be easily assembled even by people who are not experienced in circuit assembly.

Fig. 3 - Schematic High Fidelity 14W - 12V Power Amplifier using TDA2030 IC

Component List

  • Semiconductors
    • U1 .................. TDA2030 Integrated Circuit
    • D1, D2 ........... 1N4007 Silicon Diode

  • Resistors:    
    • R1, R2, R3 ..... 100KΩ resistor (brown, black, yellow, gold)
    • R4 .................. 4K7Ω resistor (yellow, red, purple, gold)
    • R5 .................. 150KΩ resistor (brown, green, yellow, gold)
    • R6 .................. 1Ω / 1W resistor (brown, black, gold, gold
    • RP1 ............... 22KΩ Potentiometer

  • Capacitors
    • C1 ................. 2.2µF / 35V Electrolytic Capacitor
    • C2 ................. 22µF / 35V Electrolytic Capacitor
    • C3 ................. 1000µF / 35V Electrolytic Capacitor
    • C4 ................. 2µF / 35V Electrolytic Capacitor
    • C5 ................. 100nF Polyester or Ceramic Capacitor
    • C6.................. 220nF polyester or ceramic
    • C7 ................. 2200µF / 35V Electrolytic Capacitor

  • Others
    • P1, P2, P3 ... Screw Terminal Type 5mm 2-Pin Connector
    • Printed circuit board, heat sink, box, wires, etc.

In Figure 4, we are offering the PCB - Printed Circuit Board, in GERBER, PDF and PNG files, for you who want to do the most optimized assembly, either at home, or if you prefer in a company that develops the board, you can is downloading and make the files in the Download option below.

Fig. 4 - PCB - High Fidelity 14W - 12V Power Amplifier using TDA2030 IC


Files to Download, Direct Link:

Click on the link beside: GERBER, PDF and PNG files

If you have any questions, suggestions or corrections, please leave them in the comments and we will answer them soon.

Subscribe to our blog!!! Click Here - elcircuits.com!!!

My Best Regards!!!

Tuesday, December 14, 2021

400W Class AB Amplifier using MJL4281A and MJL4302A transistors + PCB

Fig. 1 - 400W Class AB Amplifier using MJL4281A and MJL4302A transistors + PCB

The amplifier circuit is 400W RMS per channel, if you want to make two of these boards, they will be 800W RMS, that is, high power with great sound quality and stability.

This amplifier circuit can be used for virtually any type of application that requires an amplifier of high performance, low noise and low distortion, and excellent sound quality.

It uses 4 power transistors on the output; two NPN transistors MJL4281 and two PNP MJL4302, forming a double pair of complementary transistors.

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The Power Transistors

The MJL4281A and MJL4302A transistors are power transistors designed for high power audio, they have a collector-emitter sustaining voltage of 350 V, high gain - 80 to 240, with the hFE = 50 (min) 8A collector current. And a low harmonic distortion, which makes a transistor exceptional for high power operation and audio quality.

The Circuit

The complexity of the circuit is at an advanced level, it is not recommended for those who do not have experience in electronics and in assembling amplifier circuits, you must have minimal knowledge at an advanced level to assemble this type of power amplifier.

The schematic diagram of the complete circuit, shown in Figure 2 below, is a very robust amplifier, with great sound quality, and very stable, responding very well at all audible frequencies, with little attenuation in the auditory frequency range 20Hz to 20Khz.

Fig. 2 - Schematic 400W Class AB Amplifier using MJL4281A and MJL4302A transistors

Power supply

The power supply is symmetrical, with a voltage of +65V | 0V | -65V, and direct current, with at least 6 Amps of current. For continuous use, we recommend 8A, especially if used in a subwoofer.

In Figure 3 below, we have a suggestion for a power supply that we use in our projects. In this article, besides having the schematic diagram with the Printed Circuit Board, you will understand how to easily calculate your own Power Supply, with the desired voltage.

You can in the link below:

Fig. 3 - Symmetrical Power Supply for Power Amplifiers

Components List

  • Q1, Q2 ............ 2N5401 PNP Transistor
  • Q3, Q4, Q5 ..... 2N5551 NPN Transistor
  • Q6, Q7 ............ MJE340 NPN Transistor
  • Q8 ................... TIP41 NPN Transistor
  • Q9 ................... TIP42 PNP Transistor
  • Q10, Q11 ......... MJL4281 NPN Transistor
  • Q12, Q13 ......... MJL4302 NPN Transistor

  • D1, D2 ............. 1N4007 Diode

  • R1 .................... 56KΩ resistor (green, blue, orange, gold)
  • R2, R3, R14 ..... 100Ω resistor (brown, black, brown, gold)
  • R4 .................... 47KΩ resistor (yellow, purple, orange, gold)
  • R5 .................... 120Ω resistor (brown, red, brown, gold)
  • R6 .................... 1K2Ω resistor (brown, red, red, gold)
  • R7, R12 ............ 680Ω resistor (blue, gray, brown, gold)
  • R8 ..................... 68KΩ resistor (blue, gray, orange, gold)
  • R9, R11 ............ 4K7Ω resistor (yellow, red, purple, gold)
  • R10 .................. 3K9Ω resistor (orange, white, red, gold)
  • R13 .................. 10Ω resistor (brown, black, black, gold)
  • R15 .................. 180Ω / 1W resistor (brown, gray, brown, gold)
  • R16 to R23 ....... 0.22Ω /5W resistor (red, red, gold, silver)
  • R24, R25 .......... 10Ω / 1W resistor (brown, black, black, gold
  • RP1 .................. 1K Potentiometer
  • C1 ........................ 4.7uF / 25V electrolytic capacitor 
  • C2, C7 ................. 100pF ceramic, polyester capacitor
  • C3, C4, C5, C6 .... 47uF / 50V electrolytic capacitor 
  • C8 ........................ 100nF ceramic, polyester capacitor

  • L1 ................ 5uH - Air Core Coil 10 Turns 18AWG, 3/8" Core

  • P1, P2 ........... Screw Terminal Type 5mm 2-Pin Connector
  • P3 ................. Screw Terminal Type 5mm 3-Pin Connector
    • Others ............ PCB, tin, wires, heat sink, soldering Iron, etc.

    We are offering the PCB - Printed Circuit Board, in GERBER, PDF and PNG files, for you who want to do the most optimized assembly, either at home. 

    If you prefer in a company that develops the board, you can is downloading and make the files in the Download option below.

    Fig. 4 - PCB - 400W Class AB Amplifier using MJL4281A and MJL4302A transistors

    Files to download, Direct Link:

    Click on the link beside: GERBER, PDF and PNG files

    If you have any questions, suggestions or corrections, please leave them in the comments and we will answer them soon.

    Subscribe to our blog!!! Click Here - elcircuits.com!!!

    My Best Regards!!!


    Wednesday, December 8, 2021

    24W Stereo Hi-Fi Audio Amplifier using TDA2616 + PCB

    Fig.- 24W Stereo Hi-Fi Audio Amplifier using TDA2616 + PCB

    In this article, we show you how to build a simple and portable 12W + 12W audio amplifier using the TDA2616 Integrated Circuit.

    The TDA2616 IC is a stereo power audio amplifier, it comes with plastic package (SOT131) single-in-line 9-lead (SIL9).

    This IC is explicitly designed for mains powered amplifier circuits, such as stereo radio, instrument return box, TV sets and so on.

    The TDA2616 IC has a good input gain balance on both channels in accordance with IEC 268 and DIN 45500 standards.

    In addition, the TDA2616 has a special integrated circuit for the suppression of noise signals at the inputs during activation and deactivation, which avoids clicking sounds or the famous popping during circuit operation.

    You might also be interested in:

    Features

    • Requires very few external components
    • No switch-on/switch-off clicks
    • Input mute during switch-on and switch-off
    • Low offset voltage between output and ground
    • Excellent gain balance of both amplifiers
    • Hi-fi in accordance with IEC 268 and DIN 45500
    • Short-circuit proof and thermal protected
    • Mute possibility.

    In Figure 2 below, we show the complete 24W Stereo Audio Amplifier Circuit using TDA2616 IC, as we can see, there are few external components, which makes it easier for those who do not have much experience with assembling electronic circuits.

    Fig. 2 - Schematic 24W Stereo Hi-Fi Audio Amplifier with Mute using TDA2616

    Amplifier Operation 

    This amplifier circuit was designed to work with a symmetrical power supply, the maximum power supply voltage is 21V, however the recommended is 16V, with this voltage, an output power of 2 × 12 W is obtained (with THD = 0 .5%) with a load of .

    The mute circuit can also be activated via pin 2. When a current of 300µA is present at pin 2, the circuit is in the mute condition.

    The internal gain voltage is fixed at 30dB, which allows us a stable balance between the two amplifier channels (0.2dB).

    Components List

    • U1 ....................... TDA2616 Integrated circuit

    • R1, R2 ................ 8.2Ω resistor (brown, black, orange, gold)

    • C1, C2 ................ 470nF ceramic, polyester capacitor 
    • C3, C4 ................ 22nF ceramic, polyester capacitor 
    • C5, C6 ................ 2200uF / 25V electrolytic capacitor

    • P1, P2, P3, P4 .... Screw Terminal Type 5mm 2-Pin Connector
    • P5 ....................... Screw Terminal Type 5mm 3-Pin Connector
      • Others ................ PCB, tin, wires, soldering Iron, etc.

      Download

      We provide the files with the PCB, the schematic, the PDF, GERBER and JPG, PNG and provide a direct link for free download and a direct link, "MEGA".

      Fig. 3 - PCB - 3D - 24W Stereo Hi-Fi Audio Amplifier with Mute using TDA2616

      Click on the direct link to download the files: Layout PCB, PDF, GERBER, JPG

      If you have any questions, suggestions or corrections, please leave them in the comments and we will answer them soon.

      Subscribe to our blog!!! Click here - elcircuits.com!!!

      My Best Regards!!!


      Monday, December 6, 2021

      Adjustable Switching Power Supply 5.1 to 40V, 2.5 Amp using L4960 + PCB

      Fig. 1 - Adjustable Switching Power Supply 5.1 to 40V, 2.5 Amp using L4960

      In this article, we present an adjustable power supply with a stabilized output that varies from 5.1 to 40V, with a current of 2.5 amps

      This one can also have its stabilized voltage fixed, everything will depend on the type of project you are going to use.

      The adjustable power supply is based on IC L4960 which is a monolithic power switching regulator IC, delivering 2.5A at a voltage variable from 5V to 40V in step down configuration.

      Features of the device include current limiting, soft start, thermal protection and 0 to 100% duty cycle for continuous operation mode.

      The complete schematic diagram of the power supply is shown below in Figure 2, it is a simple but complete power supply.

      Fig. 2 - Schematic Adjustable Switching Power Supply 5.1 to 40V, 2.5 Amp using L4960

      CIRCUIT OPERATION

      The L4960 is a monolithic step down switching regulator providing output voltages from 5.1V to 40V and delivering 2.5A.

      The regulation loop consists of a sawtooth oscillator, error amplifier, comparator and the output stage. An error signal is produced by comparing the output voltage with a precise 5.1V on-chip reference (zener zap trimmed to ± 2%).

      This error signal is then compared with the sawtooth signal to generate the fixed frequency pulse width modulated pulses which drive the output stage.

      The gain and frequency stability of the loop can be adjusted by an external RC network connected to pin 3. 

      Closing the loop directly gives an output voltage of 5.1V. Higher voltages are obtained by inserting a voltage divider.

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      Output overcurrent at switch on are prevented by the soft start function. The error amplifier output is initially clamped by the external capacitor Css and allowed to rise, linearly, as this capacitor is charged by a constant current source. Output overload protection is provided in the form of a current limiter.

      The load current is sensed by an internal metal resistor connected to a comparator. When the load current exceeds a preset threshold this comparator sets a flip flop which disables the output stage and discharges the soft start capacitor. 

      A second comparator resets the flip flop when the voltage across the soft start capacitor has fallen to 0.4V.

      The output stage is thus re-enabled and the output voltage rises under control of the soft start network.

      If the overload condition is still present the limiter will trigger again when the threshold current is reached. The average short circuit current is limited to a safe value by the dead time introduced by the soft start network. 

      The thermal overload circuit disables circuit operation when the junction temperature reaches about 150°C and has hysteresis to prevent unstable conditions.

      Efficient operation at switching frequencies up to 150KHz allows a reduction in the size and cost of external filter components.

      The L4960 is mounted in a plastic Heptawatt power pack, and the pinouts are shown in Figure 3 below.

      Fig. 3 -  L4960 IC Heptawatt Pinout

      Download

      We provide the files with the PCB, the schematic, the PDF, GERBER and JPG, PNG and provide a direct link for free download and a direct link, "MEGA".

      Click on the direct link to download the files: Layout PCB, PDF, GERBER, JPG

      Fig. 4 - Adjustable Switching Power Supply 5.1 to 40V, 2.5 Amp using L4960

      If you have any questions, suggestions or corrections, please leave them in the comments and we will answer them soon.

      Subscribe to our blog!!! Click Here - elcircuits.com!!!

      My Best Regards!!!

      Friday, December 3, 2021

      5W Stereo Audio Amplifier Circuit using TEA2025 IC + PCB

      In this article, we show you how to build a simple and portable 5W stereo audio amplifier using the TEA 2025 Integrated Circuit.

      This circuit built based on TEA2025 IC which is a monolithic integrated audio amplifier in a 16-pin plastic dual in line package manufactured by UTC

      The circuit has Internal Thermal Protector. It is designed for portable cassette players, mp3 players and radios. 

      You can also use it as your smartphone or PC audio amplifier. This circuit requires 9V power supply to work, you may use a power supply circuit with output 9V 500mA DC current or a 9V lead acid battery.

      Features

      • The power supply voltage range is from 3V to 15V.
      • Working Voltage down to 3V
      • Few External components
      • Dual or Bridge Connection Modes
      • High Channel isolation
      • Very low switch On/Off Noise
      • Voltage gain up to 45dB(Adjustable with external resistor)
      • Soft clipping
      • Internal Thermal protection

      Working Explanation

      This amplifier, in the configuration presented in this article, is 2 channels, has an output power of 2.5 watts per channel.

      For those who want to use a single channel, you can be using it in bridge mode, and you will have an output power of 5W.

      Input Capacitor

      The input capacitor is PNP type, allowing the source to be referenced to ground. In this way, no input coupling capacitor is required. 

      However, a series capacitor (0.22 uF)to the input side can be useful in case of noise due to variable resistor contact.

      Bootstrap

      The bootstrap connection allows increasing the output swing. The suggested value for the bootstrap capacitors (100uF) avoids a reduction of the output signal also at low frequencies and low supply voltages.

      This amplifier in this 2-channel configuration, has an output power of 2.5 watts per channel, and you may be using it in bridge mode, and you will have an output of 5W.

      Power supply

      The power supply is direct current, "Vdc", the voltage supported by this amplifier is up to 15V, with a peak current of 1.5 amps.

      The voltage input pin is located on pin 16 of  TEA2025 IC, while pins 4, 5, 9, 13, 12 are grounded to GND.

      Applications

      • Electronic Instruments
      • PC sound speaker
      • Home theater systems
      • Hi-fi electronic gadgets and devices
      • Robotics applications 
      • Children’s gadgets and toys, etc.

      In Figure 1 below, we show the complete 5W Stereo Audio Amplifier Circuit using TEA2025 IC, and that you can download the files in option; Download files below at the bottom of the page.

      Fig. 1 - Schematic 5W Stereo Audio Amplifier Circuit using TEA2025 IC

      Components List

      • U1 ................................ TEA2025 Integrated circuit

      • R1, R2 ......................... 10K resistor (brown, black, orange, gold)

      • C1, C2 ......................... 0.47uF ceramic, polyester capacitor 
      • C3, C4, C5, C6, C9 ..... 100uF electrolytic capacitor
      • C7, C11 ....................... 470uF electrolytic capacitor
      • C8, C10 ....................... 0.15uF ceramic, polyester capacitor 

      • P1, P2, P3, P4, P5 ....... Screw Terminal Type 5mm 2-Pin Connector
      • Others ......................... PCB, tin, wires, etc.

      PCB - Download

      We provide the files with the PCB, the schematic, the PDF, GERBER and JPG, PNG and provide a direct link for free download and a direct link, "MEGA".

      Fig. 2 - 5W Stereo Audio Amplifier Circuit using TEA2025

      Click on the direct link to download the files: Layout PCB, PDF, GERBER, JPG

      If you have any questions, suggestions or corrections, please leave them in the comments, and we will answer them soon.

      Subscribe to our blog!!! Click here - elcircuits.com!!!

      My Best Regards!!!

      Thursday, December 2, 2021

      High Precision 5 Volts 3 Amp Voltage Regulator Circuit using TL431 + PCB

      Circuits with a high level of sensitivity require a stable supply, they are generally difficult to be powered by power supplies, due to the high level of sensitivity needed to provide stable voltage in the circuit.

      However, we are introducing a stabilized power supply with an accurate output to power any sensitive circuit, such as microcontroller circuits, microprocessor circuits, RF transmission, PICs, and so on.

      Today we are going to build a very precise circuit, which uses a very well-known component that is widely used in SMPS power supplies, especially ATX PC power supplies, “which looks more like a transistor”.

      The 3-Pin TL431 Integrated Circuit, It offers better stability, less temperature deviation (VI (dev)) and less reference current (Iref) for greater system accuracy.

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      The TL431 device is an adjustable tap regulator with thermal stability specified in the applicable automotive, commercial, and military temperature ranges.

      The output voltage can be set to any value between Vref (approximately 2.5V) to 36V, with two external resistors. These devices have a typical output impedance of 0.2 Ω.

      The active output circuitry provides a very crisp activation characteristic, making these devices excellent replacements for Zener diodes in many applications such as integrated regulation, tunable power supplies and switched power supplies.

      Characteristics

      • Reference voltage tolerance at 25°C
      • 0.5% (class B)
      • 1% (class A)
      • 2% (standard class)
      • Adjustable output voltage: Vref to 36V
      • Operation from -40 °C to 125 °C
      • Typical temperature deviation (TL43xB)
      • 6 mV (temperature C)
      • 14 mV (I Temp, Q Temp)
      • Low output noise
      • 0.2 Ω typical output impedance
      • Sink current capacity: 1 mA to 100 mA
      • Application
      • Adjustable voltage and current reference
      • Secondary lateral adjustment in Flyback SMPSs
      • Zener Replacement
      • voltage monitoring
      • Comparator with integrated reference

      In Figure 2 below, we have the schematic diagram of the High Precision Voltage Regulator Circuit with TL431 IC, the LM350 IC, provides a current of up to 3 Amps.

      Fig. 1 - High Precision 5 Volts 3 Amp Voltage Regulator Circuit - TL431

      With the TL431 IC, they provide a precise 5V output, which is often necessary for precision microcontrollers, sensitive equipment, that require a stabilized voltage, this circuit is ideal for that.

      The power supply must provide a current of at least 3 Amps. Its input voltage must be greater than 7 Volts, to avoid overheating the LM350 IC, voltages no greater than 15V must be used.

      Components List

      • CI 1 ......... Voltage Regulator Circuit LM350
      • CI 2 ......... Adjustable Regulator Circuit TL431
      • R1 ........... 8K2Ω Resistor (grey, red, red)
      • R2, R3 ..... Precision resistor 243Ω 1% (red, yellow, orange, black, brown)
      • P1, P2 ..... Soldering terminals on 2-pin PCI
      • Others ..... Printed Circuit Board, tin, wires, etc.

      Download

      We provide the files with the PCB, the schematic, the PDF, GERBER and JPG, PNG and provide a direct link for free download and a direct link, "MEGA".

      Fig. 2 - High Precision 5 Volts 3 Amp Voltage Regulator Circuit - TL431

      Click on the direct link to download the files: Layout PCB, PDF, GERBER, JPG

      If you have any questions, suggestions or corrections, please leave them in the comments and we will answer them soon.

      Subscribe to our blog!!! Click here - elcircuits.com!!!

      My Best Regards!!!

      Monday, November 29, 2021

      Symmetrical Power Supply for Power Amplifiers using Calculation + PCB

      Fig. 1 - Symmetrical Power Supply for Power Amplifiers

      For power amplifier lovers, who build their own audio power amplifiers, here is a good full wave rectifier linear symmetric power supply that will meet the power demand without leaving anything to be desired in terms of stability.

      This power supply is designed for amplifiers with power up to 2500W, it will work without any problems with great stability.

      Most power amplifier circuits require a symmetrical power supply, and what differs from each other is always the power required from the supply.

      As we know, a good power supply with good filtering will determine the quality and final power of your amplifier.

      You may be interested in: 

      The complete schematic diagram of the power supply is shown below in Figure 2, it is a simple but complete power supply.

      Fig.2 - Electrical schematic Symmetrical Power Supply for Power Amplifiers


      However, it is worth remembering that for each amplifier power range, we can assemble a type of power supply according to the power of your amplifier.

      We are presenting 3 different configurations to exemplify the different types of power amplifiers.

      There are 3 examples of simplified formulas for you to calculate the  power supply Current and Voltage according to the power of your amplifier.

      Remembering that the PCB printed circuit board is the same for all configurations.

      Configuration 1:

      In this configuration, we can use amplifiers that have a total power up to 400W

      We need to calculate the maximum power supply current, considering 45V supply, and the maximum power of 400W. Calculating ohms Law: P = V * I
      • I = P / V 
      • I = 400/45 
      • I = 8.88A
      Now you need to stipulate the maximum ripple allowed in your design, in this case: If you set the maximum ripple voltage to 5%!
      • V_ripple = V_ps * 5%
      • V_ripple = 45V * 5%
      • V_ripple  = 2.25V
      Once the maximum ripple voltage has been stipulated, we need to calculate the capacitor for that ripple at 5% of the source, "You may be calculating the percentage that best suits your design."

      Capacitor Calculation Formula : C = I / F * V_ripple 
      • C = 8.88 / 120 * 2.25
      • C = 8.88 / 270
      • C = 0.032888 = > C = 32.888X10^-6 = 32.888uF
      As our board was designed to support 6 capacitors. We can divide the entire value into uF and divide by 6 Capacitors.
      • C_individual = 32.888 / 6
      • C_individual  = 5.481uF

      For a closer commercial capacitors value, we have:
      C_individual = 6.800uF / 63V

      • 6 x 6.800uF Capacitor
      • 15A rectifier bridge

      Configuration 2:

      In this configuration, we can use amplifiers that have a total power up to 1200W

      We need to calculate the maximum power supply current, considering 75V supply, and the  maximum power of 1200W. Calculating ohms Law: P = V * I
      • I = P / V 
      • I = 1200/75 
      • I = 16A

      Now you need to stipulate the maximum ripple allowed in your design, in this case: If you set the maximum ripple voltage to 5%!
      • V_ripple = V_ps * 5%
      • V_ripple = 75V * 5%
      • V_ripple  = 3.75V

      Once the maximum ripple voltage has been stipulated, we need to calculate the capacitor for that ripple at 5% of the source, "You may be calculating the percentage that best suits your design."

      Capacitor Calculation Formula : V_ripple = I / F * C
      • C = I / F * V_ripple 
      • C = 16 / 120 * 3.75
      • C = 16 / 450
      • C = 0.035555 = > C = 35.555X10^-6 = 35.555uF

      As our board was designed to support 6 capacitors. We can divide the entire value into uF and divide by 6 Capacitors.
      • C_individual = 35.555 / 6
      • C_individual  = 5.925uF

      For a closer commercial capacitors value, we have:
      C_individual = 6.800uF / 100V

      • 6 x 6.800uF Capacitor
      • 25A rectifier bridge

      Configuration 3:

      In this configuration, we can use amplifiers that have a total power up to 2500W

      We need to calculate the maximum power supply current, considering 95V supply, and the maximum power of 2500W. Calculating ohms Law: P = V * I
      • I = P / V 
      • I = 2500/95 
      • I = 26A

      Now you need to stipulate the maximum ripple allowed in your design, in this case: If you set the maximum ripple voltage to 5%!
      • V_ripple = V_ps * 5%
      • V_ripple = 95V * 5%
      • V_ripple  = 4.75V

      Once the maximum ripple voltage has been stipulated, we need to calculate the capacitor for that ripple at 5% of the source, "You may be calculating the percentage that best suits your design."

      Capacitor Calculation Formula : C = I / F * V_ripple 
      • C = 26 / 120 * 4.75
      • C = 26 / 570
      • C = 0.045614 = > C = 45.614X10^-6 = 45.614uF
      As our board was designed to support 6 capacitors. We can divide the entire value into uF and divide by 6 Capacitors.
      • C_individual = 45.614 / 6
      • C_individual  = 7.602uF

      For a closer commercial capacitors value, we have:
      C_individual = 10.000uF / 200V

      • 6 x 10.000uF Capacitor
      • 40A rectifier bridge

      Download

      We provide the files with the PCB, the schematic, the PDF, GERBER and JPG, PNG and provide a direct link for free download and a direct link, "MEGA".

      Click on the direct link to download the files: Layout PCB, PDF, GERBER, JPG

      If you have any questions, suggestions or corrections, please leave them in the comments and we will answer them soon.

      Subscribe to our blog!!! Click here - elcircuits.com!!!

      My Best Regards!!!

      Wednesday, November 10, 2021

      3-Band Active Equalizer Circuit using LF353 IC + PCB

      Fig. 1 - PCB 3-Band Active Equalizer Circuit with LF353 IC


      This three-band active graphic equalizer circuit is an active filter set for three basic audio equalization ranges, bass, mid and treble. The circuit is based on the LF353 operational amplifier integrated circuit.

      The LF353 is a two-input JFET operational amplifier with an internally compensated input offset voltage. The JFET input device provides wide bandwidth, low input bias currents and offset currents.

      You might also be interested in:

      Features

      • Internally Trimmed Offset Voltage: 10 mV
      • Low Input Bias Current: 50pA
      • Low Input Noise Voltage: 25 nV/√Hz
      • Low Input Noise Current: 0.01 pA/√Hz
      • Wide gain bandwidth: 4 MHz
      • High slew rate: 13V / μs
      • Low Supply Current: 3.6 mA
      • High Input Impedance: 1012Ω
      • Low Total Harmonic Distortion : 0.02%
      • Low 1/f Noise Corner: 50 Hz
      • Fast Settling Time to 0.01%: 2 μs

      The equalizer circuit.

      The 3-band Equalizer use a Integrated Circuits operational amplifier LF353, and the capacitors determine the frequencies, the higher their capacitance, the lower the cutoff frequencies.

      The proposed equalizer is a 2-octave graphic equalizer with a 3-band circuit, the cut-off frequencies are at: 150Hz, 1kHz and 12kHz.

      This circuit was assembled with LF353, but nothing prevents you from using other replacement pin compatible ICs, such as: LM1558RC4558, LM358 etc.
       
      The recommended supply voltage is between ±11V and ±15V, but note that the maximum voltage IC supports is ±18V. The IC consumption current is 6.5mA maximum, and 3.6mA average.

      The IC has two internal amplifiers, we get a amplifier for each frequency and the last one for the final amplification of the entire circuit. In Figure 2 below, the pinout and configuration of the LF353 integrated circuit is shown.

      Fig. 2 - Pinout IC LF353

      In Figure 3 below, we show the complete 3-band equalizer circuit, and that you can download the files in option; Download files below at the bottom of the page.

      Fig. 3 - Schematic Diagram 3-band Active Equalizer Circuit with LF353 IC

      Components List

      • U1 .............. Integrated circuit LF353

      • R1, R2, R5, R6 ... 10K resistor (brown, black, orange, gold)
      • R3, R7 ................ 3.6K resistor (orange, green, red, gold)
      • R4, R8 ................ 1.8K resistor (brown, gray, red, gold)

      • C1 ...................... 4.7uF electrolytic capacitor
      • C2 ...................... 1uF electrolytic capacitor
      • C3 ...................... 50nF polyester capacitor 
      • C4, C6 ............... 5nF polyester capacitor
      • C5 ...................... 22nF polyester capacitor

      • VR1 .................... 47K Potentiometer 
      • VR2, VR3 .......... 100K Potentiometer 
      • VR4 .................... 500K Potentiometer 

      • P1  ....................... Screw Terminal Type 5mm 3-Pin Connector
      • P2, P3 .................. Screw Terminal Type 5mm 2-Pin Connector
      • Others .................. PCB, tin, wires, etc.

      Download

      We provide the files with the PCB, the schematic, the PDF, GERBER and JPG, PNG and provide a direct link for free download and a direct link, "MEGA".

      Click on the direct link to download the files: Layout PCB, PDF, GERBER, JPG

      If you have any questions, suggestions or corrections, please leave them in the comments and we will answer them soon.

      Subscribe to our blog!!! Click here - elcircuits.com!!!

      My Best Regards!!!


      Saturday, November 6, 2021

      Arduino: Lesson 9 - LED Sequencing using Array Data Structure

        
      Fig. 1 - Arduino: Lesson 9 - LED Sequencing using Array Data Structure

      Welcome to Lesson 9 - Basic Arduino Course

      In today's lesson, we will learn how to use 5 LEDs connected to 5 Arduino ports, which will light up in sequence and right after the cycle ends, will go out in sequence. With that, we will learn a new instruction, the Array data structure.

      What is Array?

      An array is a collection of variables that are accessed with an index number. However, the "array" data structure is not exactly an existing data type

      There are arrays of variables like "char", "int", "boolean", "float" and so on. This means that an array can be variables of any type mentioned above.

      An array, or vector, for example, is a collection of variables of a specific type, which may even use the same nomenclature, but which will be distinguished by an indexed number.

      For example: We can use a variable type "float" with a single name indexed by number, instead of different variables (VarFloat_1, VarFloat_2, VarFloat_3...) we can use a single grouped array with the same nomenclature that will allow each variable be manipulated separately by a numerical index, (VarFloat [0], VarFloat [1], VarFloat [2] ...).

      Hardware Required

      • Arduino Board
      • 5 - LEDs
      • 5 - 250 ohms resistor - (brown, green, brown, gold)
      • Jumper Wires
      • Protoboard (optional)

      The Circuit Connections

      The circuit is a bit simple, we connect the longer "Anode" legs of the 5 LEDs to the positive 5V of the Arduino, and the other shorter leg "Cathode", we connect to the 150 ohm resistor and in series with GND, negative of the Arduino, as shown in Figure 2 below.

      Fig. 2 -  LED Sequencing using Array Data Structure - tinkercad.com


      We use a protoboard to facilitate the connections, but you can also connect the wires directly to the Arduino.

      The Code

      The code can be implemented in the normal way in programming, as shown in the code below. But the code is quite large, we use 42 lines of code to create this kind of sequential LED circuit. To write less lines of code, an "optimizer" is required. 

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      // Arduino: Lesson 9 - LED Sequencing using Array Data Structure

      const int Led1 =  2;        // Select the output LED1 PIN
      const int Led2 =  3;        // Select the output LED2 PIN
      const int Led3 =  4;        // Select the output LED3 PIN
      const int Led4 =  5;        // Select the output LED4 PIN
      const int Led5 =  6;        // Select the output LED5 PIN

      void setup() {                // This function is called once when the program starts  
       pinMode(Led1, OUTPUT);    // Initialize digital pin LED1 as an output.
       pinMode(Led2, OUTPUT);    // Initialize digital pin LED2 as an output.
       pinMode(Led3, OUTPUT);    // Initialize digital pin LED3 as an output.
       pinMode(Led4, OUTPUT);    // Initialize digital pin LED4 as an output.
       pinMode(Led5, OUTPUT);    // Initialize digital pin LED5 as an output.
      }

      void loop() { // The loop function runs over and over again as long as the Arduino has power.
      // Turn ON each  LED sequence in order
        digitalWrite(Led1, HIGH);
        delay(150);                             // Wait for 150 millisecond(s)
        digitalWrite(Led2, HIGH);
        delay(150);                             // Wait for 150 millisecond(s)
        digitalWrite(Led3, HIGH);
        delay(150);                             // Wait for 150 millisecond(s)
        digitalWrite(Led4, HIGH);
        delay(150);                             // Wait for 150 millisecond(s)
        digitalWrite(Led5, HIGH);
        delay(150);                             // Wait for 150 millisecond(s)

      // Turn OFF each  LED sequence in order
        digitalWrite(Led1, LOW);
        delay(150);                             // Wait for 150 millisecond(s)
        digitalWrite(Led2, LOW);
        delay(150);                             // Wait for 150 millisecond(s)
        digitalWrite(Led3, LOW);
        delay(150);                             // Wait for 150 millisecond(s)
        digitalWrite(Led4, LOW);
        delay(150);                             // Wait for 150 millisecond(s)
        digitalWrite(Led5, LOW);
        delay(150);                             // Wait for 150 millisecond(s)
      }
      //------------------------------------- www.elcircuits.com --------------------------------------------

      This is where the Array data structure comes into play, we can use it to drastically reduce the number of lines of code, as shown in the code example below.


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      // Arduino: Lesson 9 - LED Sequencing using Array Data Structure

      const int Leds =  5;                                      //Number of LEDs in the circuit
      const int PinLeds[Leds] = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6};   //LEDs connected to pins 2 to 6

      void setup() {                 // This function is called once when the program starts
        for (int i = 0; i < Leds; i++) {            // Go through each of the elements in our array
          pinMode(PinLeds[i], OUTPUT);    // And set them as OUTPUT
        }
      }
      void loop() { // The loop function runs over and over again as long as the Arduino has power.
        for (int i = 0; i < Leds; i++) {            // Go through each of the Leds elements in our array
          digitalWrite(PinLeds[i], HIGH);     // And set each of the PinLeds in HIGH level
          delay(150);                                      // Wait 150 millis seconds, and back to structure For   
        }
        for (int i = 0; i < Leds; i++) {            // Go through each of the Leds elements in our array
          digitalWrite(PinLeds[i], LOW);      // And set each of the PinLeds in LOW level
          delay(150);                                      // Wait 150 millis seconds, and back to structure For 
        }
      }
      //------------------------------------- www.elcircuits.com --------------------------------------------

      Using the Array Data Structure technique, we could practically save half a line of the previous code, that's really cool, right?

      After building the circuit, connect your Arduino board to your computer, run the Arduino software (IDE), copy the code below and paste it into your Arduino IDE. But first let us understand the code line by line.
      • In Line 3, we declared  the number of LEDs in the circuit.

      • In Line 4, We are using an Array to index each pin of the LEDs in the corresponding Arduino Ports.
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      // Arduino: Lesson 9 - LED Sequencing using Array Data Structure

      const int Leds =  5;                                      //Number of LEDs in the circuit
      const int PinLeds[Leds] = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6};   //LEDs connected to pins 2 to 6

      //------------------------------------- www.elcircuits.com --------------------------------------------
      • In Line 6we enter the void setup() function. This function is read only once when the Arduino is started.

      • In Line 7, we enter in the FOR structure control, to access each Leds element.

      • in Line 8, we set each PinLeds as OUTPUT, through each elements in ou array.
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      // Arduino: Lesson 9 - LED Sequencing using Array Data Structure

      void setup() {                 // This function is called once when the program starts
        for (int i = 0; i < Leds; i++) {            // Go through each of the elements in our array
          pinMode(PinLeds[i], OUTPUT);    // And set them as OUTPUT
        }
      }
      //------------------------------------- www.elcircuits.com --------------------------------------------
      • Line 11, we enter in the loop() function does precisely what its name suggests, and loops consecutively.

      • In Line 12, we enter in the For structure control, to go through each of the Leds elements in our array.

      • In Line 13, we continue in the For structure control, and set each of the PinLeds in HIGH level, turn on Led by Led.

      • In Line 14, we enter in the delay function, to wait 150 millis seconds, and back to structure For while it is true.

      • In Line 16, we enter in the For structure control, to go through each of the Leds elements in our array.

      • In Line 17, we continue in the For structure control, and set each of the PinLeds in LOW level, turn off Led by Led.

      • In Line 18, we enter in the delay function, to wait 150 millis seconds, and back to structure For while it is true.
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      // Arduino: Lesson 9 - LED Sequencing using Array Data Structure

      void loop() { // The loop function runs over and over again as long as the Arduino has power.
        for (int i = 0; i < Leds; i++) {            // Go through each of the Leds elements in our array
          digitalWrite(PinLeds[i], HIGH);     // And set each of the PinLeds in HIGH level
          delay(150);                                      // Wait 150 millis seconds, and back to structure For   
        }
        for (int i = 0; i < Leds; i++) {            // Go through each of the Leds elements in our array
          digitalWrite(PinLeds[i], LOW);      // And set each of the PinLeds in LOW level
          delay(150);                                      // Wait 150 millis seconds, and back to structure For 
        }
      }
      //------------------------------------- www.elcircuits.com --------------------------------------------
      All ready! After you have assembled the entire circuit, and uploaded this code, what you should see is the sequence of LEDs turning on and off, giving the impression that the LEDs are moving forward.

      Previous Lesson

      If you have any questions, suggestions or corrections, please leave them in the comments and we will answer them soon.

      Subscribe to our blog!!! Click here - elcircuits.com!!!

      My Best Regards!!!